Milestone 8 sanjosespartans Foundation4

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Submission template for Milestone 8. Create similar one's for all four foundations, each foundation will have its own page. All four pages needs to be submitted to meteor voting+commenting website.

Foundation 4: Open governance

žIs it direct voting on everything? Or representative democracy?


Answer :

1. Open Source Government advocates intellectual link between principles of Open Source and open-content movements and basic democratic principles. With the objective of enabling ordinary citizens to contribute directly to formation of policy ,open-source governance theoretically provides a more direct means to affect change than periodic elections.

2. In developing countries it is applicable in frameworks of popular consultations ,election monitoring ,constitution drafting processes or anywhere where it ensures that voices of diverse ethnic ,political and minority groups are heard. Crowdsourcing has string impact in developing countries ,whether applied to crisis and tactical mapping, tracking and reporting on, or coordinating relief efforts in context of natural disaster . By providing visualizations and monitoring implementation of relief and recovery efforts allowing for wide dissemination of weather and crop market price information etc. crowd funding can be applied in multiple ways within context of international development.

3. Improving Governance – Availability and interoperability of communication tools makes it increasingly hard to keep information secret. Crowdsourcing is increasingly viewed as a core mechanism of new systematic approaches to governance addressing the highly complex ,global and dynamic challenges of climate change, poverty, armed conflict and other crisis.

How exactly will this work?Can the research group have a hand here?

Answer :

Success Factors:

1. Infrastructure : Necessary pre-req is the availability ,acceptance and use of crowdsourcing technologies by its users. Ease of accessibility ,reliability and quality of communication and infrastructure is needed for crowd participation.

2. Linkages and Trust : Geographic, cultural ,linguistic or ethnic linkages can between individuals ,work groups or even organizations can be used to minimize costs of doing business models easier, and they pool resources to develop initiative. Sufficient time be allocated to foster trust among crowds and robust linkages might add substantial trust aspect to crowdsourcing initiative.

3. Motivation : Performance expectancy ,effort expectancy ,social influence and facilitating conditions are direct determinants of crowd’s motivation. Peripheral factors affect overall motive alignment of crowd towards crowdsourcing initiative in different manners.

4. Criteria of Governance : The criteria includes possibility of anonymous participation via central register, public key infrastructure and trusted central authority ,centralization of info via one platform interoperability of interfaces and applications with this platform ;open and equal opportunity of participation in deliberations or peer reviews ,thus enabling self selection of those most affected and/or best qualified to participate in an issue and encouragement of diversity of thought.

5. Incentives : It empowers disparate group of people with tools to contribute to larger effort. Incentives to contribute should be used to attract the most effective collaborators and the crowd’s motivation must align with the long term objective of crowdsourcing initiative to ensure consistent, good quality participation.

6. Vision : It must present a vision with well-defined set of ideas, goals, and objectives that is sensitive to dynamics of its environment so that crowd can perceive initiative as valuable and well – intentioned .As the government participation can add another trust factor to the initiative.

7. Human Capital : Another key determinant of success is human capital ,both at level of initiators and crowd joining the initiative. This includes language skills, managerial skills, national orientation , traditions and level of education . Basic mobile phone skills can engage crowdsourcing initiative without prior training and with minimal interventions.

8. Financial Capital : The inherent nature does not make it capital intensive especially if its based on existing telecommunications infrastructure like mobiles and networks. Additional investments to improve infra can enhance crowd participation. In low income countries performance based donor-funding of local community development could be used to create positive incentive for governments to allow for greater citizen scrutiny and participation.

9. Motivation : Performance expectancy ,effort expectancy ,social influence and facilitating conditions are direct determinants of crowd’s motivation. Peripheral factors affect overall motive alignment of crowd towards crowdsourcing initiative in different manners.

If there are changes that require engineering effort, who executes that? Us? Other volunteers?

Answer :

Criteria of Governance is as follows : The criteria includes possibility of anonymous participation via central register, public key infrastructure and trusted central authority ,centralization of info via one platform interoperability of interfaces and applications with this platform ;open and equal opportunity of participation in deliberations or peer reviews ,thus enabling self selection of those most affected and/or best qualified to participate in an issue and encouragement of diversity of thought.

Other factors are :

1. External Environment : This environment composed of political governance structure ,economic and business climate ,general attitudes towards entrepreneurships ,general living conditions and profiles of risk are also important determinants of success. Tasks in crowdsourcing must be compatible with prevailing practices and cultural norms, and the crowd must be able to relate goal of crowdsourcing with their living environment. Security and regulatory risks can play imp role in affecting motive alignment of crowd towards long-term objective of crowdsourcing initiative .

2. Empowerment : Crowdsourcing supports empowerment based on principle of universal participation. Digital mapping platforms – tools that combine electronic networks, maps and /or satellite imagery and tracking - are currently emerging as key instrument for improving governance in fragile state environments. Crowdsourcing is dominant method for live mapping initiatives in area of governance due to its potential to integrate all types of info and communication channels .

3. Mapping Initiatives : There are 2 basic types of interactive mapping initiatives – initiatives that take top-down approach and co-ordinate with (or agreed to by) national governments and initiatives that develop independently with bottom-up perspective. Both serve to democratize info flow and access.

4. Activity : The challenges of crowdsourcing is to identify tasks for which crowdsourcing is appropriate solution : defining, operating, supporting , and ending crowdsourcing activity ;identifying and creating technical means of participation that minimize barriers to use ;establish and maintain participation through apt incentives, ensuring appropriate privacy and safety for contributors and maximizing quality and benefit of output .